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【语法三四】长难句三大套路

July 21, 2019 • Read: 568 • 英语学习

该图片由zhaomengqi23Pixabay上发布

知识结构

2019072117114612860463.png

一、平行结构

1. 名词、词组、介词短语的平行并列

(1) The English, the Germans, the Dutch and the French () were investing () in Britain’s former colony () .
(2) The networked computer () is () an amazing device () , the first media machine (定(同位语)) that (定从,主) serves () as the mode of production (并宾) , means of distribution (并宾) , site of reception (并宾) , and () place of praise and critique (并宾) .
(3) So disciplines () acquire () a monopoly () not just () over the production of knowledge, but also () over the production of producers of knowledge.
(4) Information () flows () from the media to the influentials and () from them to everyone else.

2. 动词(谓语/非谓语)的平行并列

(1) The man () walked up () to the garden gate, hesitated () and () then rang () the bell.
(2) The process () sweeps () from hyperactive America to Europe and () reaches () the emerging countries with unsurpassed might () .
(3) The boy () were running, shouting and laughing () .

3. 句子的并列平行

(1) We () need () them to feel that (宾从) home () can be () both here and there () and () that (宾从) they () can belong () to two nations honorably () .
(2) The behavioral sciences () have been () slow to change () partly because (原因状从) the explanatory items often () seem to be () directly observed () and () partly because (原因状从) other kinds of explanations () have been () hard to find () .
(3) Along with the mangy folks () looking to make a permanent home in the US () came () those () who (定从,主) had () no intention to stay () , and () who (定从,主) would make () some money () and () then () go home () .
(4) For the time, attention, and () money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists () must compete () not only () with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and () museums, but also () with the recorded performances of the great classic musicians () of the 20th century () .

找主谓,看连接,还不明白已入套;
平行要把连词找,举一反三连串捞,相同部分都是宝;

二、分裂结构

1. 同位语、插入语

例句:
(1)Bob Lidice, the executive of the Association of the Association of National Advertisers, savs consumers will be worse off if the industry can not collect information about their preferences.
(2) The American Law Institute -- a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight -- issued new guidelines for tort law.
3) The two-step flow theory -- the information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else -- is very important in Communication Studies, an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.

常见形式

  • 主语 + "," + 插入语 + "," + 谓语
  • 主语 + "--" + 插入语 + "--" + 谓语

注:副词,副词短语,形容词(形容词短语)、介词短语、非谓语动词短语,句子等都能做插入语。

常见的插入语

(1)常见的副词及短语
indeed, however, obviously, certainly ...
(2)常见的形容词及短语
needless to say, most important of all ...
(3)常见的介词短语
by the way, in a few words, in short, in fact ...
(4)常见的现在分词短语
generally speaking / honestly speaking ...
(5)常见的动词不定式短语
to sum up, to be honest, to be short ...
(6)常见的插入句
sb.thinks/hope/guess/know/believe/suppose/write,
that is(to say) / 也就是说,
it seems / 看来是,
as i see it / 照我看来,
as we know it / 据我们所知,
what's more / , what's worse,
I'm afraid / 恐怕,
as we all know / 众所周知 ...

2. 相邻紧密成分被短语、从句等小三分开

分裂结构应对方法:

  1. 同位语、插入语 先跳过不看
  2. 不同部分间的分裂,还原本来的位置

三、嵌套结构

(1)He points out that he always experienced much difficulty in expressing himself clearly and concisely, but he believes that this very difficulty may have
only had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning
and in his own observations.
2019072316211726483012.jpeg
他指出,在清晰简洁地表达自己的思想方面,他总是会经历许多困难。但是他认为或许正因为(语言表达上的)这种困难,他不得不对自己要说的每句话都进行长时间的认真思考,从而能发现推理错误及自己言论中的错误,结果这反而成为他的优点。
(2)I like the girl who is standing over there with a book which was published in 1898.

嵌套结构应对方法

  1. 找到从句
  2. 理清从句与从句的关系
Last Modified: July 23, 2019
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